Do You Believe in God?

Do you believe in God?

Personal Answer to The Question “Do You Believe in God?

Mentioning God 4 times in headlines June to December 2017 [1-4] the BMJ is clearly not scared of ridicule from the author of “The God Delusion” and “The Greatest Show on Earth: the evidence for evolution” Richard Dawkins [5 6]. Numerous publications demolish the “scientific” foundation of his militant atheism [7-22]. Reading Professor David Berlinski’s excellent book “THE DEVIL’S DELUSION: ATHEISM AND ITS SCIENTIFIC PRETENSIONS” [23] I discern a vast difference between his Princeton PhD-reasoning and Dawkins’s Oxford University DPhil-cogitations. Thankfully, Oxford University has at least 3 other DPhils who believe in the GOD Dawkins denies: Dr Jim Packer’s “KNOWING GOD” is gem of a Classic [24]; Professor John Lennox outshines Professor Richard Dawkins [25 26] in Public Debates, and Dawkins’s previous fellow atheist Professor Alister McGrath writes: “There are many who are deluded about God, and I used to be one of them” [27]. His bestseller “THE DAWKINS DELUSION? Atheist fundamentalism and the denial of the divine” [27] states (page 64) “The God Delusion is a work of theatre, rather than scholarship -….” Alister McGrath and his wife Joanna Collicutt McGrath conclude their book with this question: “Might atheism be a delusion about God?” [27]

TO WHOM IS THIS QUESTION DIRECTED? [1]
The “you” of Modern English is ambiguously singular and plural. I prefer “thou” and “ye” of yesteryears, and I split the question into “Dost thou acknowledge God’s existence?” and “Dost thou believe in God?” Answering “Yes!” to both I rest my confidence on 3 supra-scientific Facts: History, Miracle (properly defined), and Personal Experience.

HISTORY
Historical events that cannot be fathomed through Science are often either dismissed as myths (never happened) or explained away somehow. Professor Know-All’s comments in the BMJ on 4 historical events in Clinical Medicine that I called “supra-scientific” prove my point [28]. The fourth event I described was when my robust younger brother announced on Friday 16th December one year that he had a week to live, and the following Wednesday 21st December as our mother was baking cakes for Christmas he said none of us would be eating cakes that Christmas and we laughed him to scorn; then playing football with him on Friday 23rd December we were both struck by lightning which killed him instantly, and left me with a facial burn [29]. Not only did Jerry have “a week to live”, but also no one ate cakes at Christmas 1949 in Odumase-Krobo while Rev D A Konotey-Ahulu’s second son lay unburied on Christmas Day. Professor Know-All’s “scientific” verdict was “Your brother was accident prone!” [30].

Moses saw the burning bush that was not consumed and, advancing to investigate, heard “Moses, Moses! Draw not nigh hither: Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground”. He was petrified when the voice said “I AM THAT I AM …Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel ‘I AM hath sent me unto you’” [31]. Truth of this historical event baffles atheists. That Moses went on to deliver his people from slavery in Egypt is sheer history [32].

When I date my cheques 20th January 2018 I am proclaiming that 20 Centuries ago The Lord Jesus Christ said in Jerusalem “Before Abraham was I AM” [33], the very name that Moses heard at the burning bush. I do not appeal to Science for help in validating the historicity of The Lord Jesus Christ who said 40 times in Apostle John’s Gospel that he was sent [34]. His origins and deeds can only be described as miraculous.

WHAT IS A MIRACLE?
December 1958 to March 1959 was a bad winter for this African in London. Weeks before Final Exams in April 1959 to graduate as a doctor I was admitted with virus pneumonia to Westminster Hospital in Horseferry Road under Dr (later) Sir Richard Bayliss, Queen’s Physician. If I recovered there was no way I could pass the exam because my revision plans were ruined. Discharged in time to sit the Finals, I passed.

My friend Richard Alderson, brilliant English Teacher, and fellow member of Dr Martyn Lloyd-Jones’ Westminster Chapel [35], later saw me and asked how I did. His immediate response when I said “I passed. It’s a miracle!” taught me the correct meaning of the word: “If you had the brain of a hedgehog that would be a miracle”. Exactly! True miracles are way beyond the merely supra-scientific. The hedgehog-brain-answering-exam-questions-on-placenta-praevia type of historical event that defies scientific explanation, is what some scientists deny ever happened. But Nobel Prize winner Sir Peter Medawar published “The Limits of Science” [36]. Lesser-brained scientists disagree, claiming (like Professor Know-All) to have answers for everything.

Well then, “Crucified, dead, and buried; the third day The Lord Jesus rose from the dead” is not Science so it is not History either? Does History not confirm mysterious truths which Science cannot fathom? [37 38]. I knew some Resurrection deniers who hated The Lord Jesus Christ. Their “OK, Jesus rose from the dead, so what?” revealed much. Were they God haters rather than just atheists? Are we really in a “Post-Truth World?” [39].

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
“GOD is a SPIRIT, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth” [40] – words of The Lord Jesus Christ once quite meaningless to me. Science had/has no definition for “spiritual things” [41-43]. But on Friday 24 October 1952, alone in my university rooms in Ghana reading other words of The Lord Jesus [44] HE miraculously revealed Himself to me. There’s no scientific explanation for what happened that night. Subdued and tearful, I went next-door to tell fellow student James Mustaffah: “Felix will never be the same again!” [45]. I was never the same again. Similar experiences described in Eric Metaxas’s remarkable biographies of Bonhoeffer, Wilberforce, and Luther [46-48] demonstrate this divine intertwining of History, Miracle, and Personal Experience. For me to understand spiritual things now is a Miracle. O Thank GOD!

Competing Interest: Believer in The Lord Jesus Christ [Nuntsɔ Yesu Kristo]
felix@konotey-ahulu.com Twitter@profkonoteyahul

Felix I D Konotey-Ahulu FGA MB BS MD(Lond) DSc(UCC) FRCP(Lond) FRCP(Glasg) DTMH(L’pool) FGCP FWACP FTWAS ORDER OF THE VOLTA (OFFICER) Kwegyir Aggrey Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics University of Cape Coast, Ghana; Former Consultant Physician Genetic Counsellor in Sickle Cell and Other Haemoglobinopathies Korle Bu Teaching Hospital & Director Ghana Institute of Clinical Genetics, and 9 Harley Street, Phoenix Hospital Group, London W1G 9AL. Website: www.sicklecell.md

1 Saripanidis Savros. Do you believe in God? 24 August 2017 BMJ Rapid Response http://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j4669/rapid-responses Re¨Kevin Barraclough Do you believe in God? 319:doi 10.1136/bmj.319.7214.929a

2 Burridge Stan. Three forms of identification and a letter from God.
BMJ 25 Oct 2017. 359: j4669. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4669 pmid: 29070597.

3 Donne J. Hymn to God, My God, in My Sickness | BMJ Supportive & Palliative spcare.bmj.com/content/bmjspcare/7/3/273.full.pdf June 27 2017.
John Donne’s sonnet ‘Death be not proud’ is a favourite reading at funerals; but his ‘Hymn to God, My God, in My Sickness’ is one of the great poems in the language.

4 Keown Daniel. What God forgot to tell surgeons: the science of acupuncture Review http://aim.bmj.com/content/acupmed/31/3/345.full.pdf by Anne-Marie Marlow. Downloaded on December 8, 2017.

5 Dawkins Richard. The God Delusion. London – Transworld Publications 2007.

6 Dawkins Richard. The Greatest Show on Earth. Free Press, New York, 2009

7 Sarfati Jonathan. The Greatest Hoax On Earth? Refuting Dawkins On Evolution. Creation Book Publishers. Atlanta Georgia, USA 2010. ISBN 978-0-949906-73-1 [333 pages]

8 Evolution’s Achilles Heels – 9 PhD Scientists explain evolution’s fatal flaws – in areas claimed to be its greatest strengths. Foreword by Carl Wieland. Creation Book Publishers, Powder Springs, Georgia USA 2014. ISBN 978-1-921643-82-8 [272 pp]

9 Sarfati Jonathan. Refuting Evolution. Amazon.com: Books 9780949906731 htpps://www.amazon.com/Refuting.Evolution-Jonathan-Sarfati/dp/0949906735
https://creation.com/refuting-evolution-index [A handbook for students, parents, and teachers countering the latest arguments for evolution]

10 Sarfati Jonathan. Refuting Evolution 2. A sequel that comprehensively counters arguments that support evolution (as presented in TV Documentaries and Scientific American) www.amazon.co.uk/refuting+evolution+2 2004 ISBN: 0-949906-27-1 [235 pages]

11 Penner JG. Evolution Challenged by Language and Speech. Minerva Press, London W1R 7YB. 2000 ISBN 0 75411 092 3. [403 pages]

12 Gitt Werner. In the beginning was Information – A Scientist Explains the Incredible Design in Nature. Master Books (New Leaf Publishing Group) AR 72638 USA ISBN-13: 978-0-89051-461-0 & 10: 089051-461-5 (264 pages).

13 Gitt Werner. Did God use Evolution? Christliche Literatur-Verbreitung e.V. Postfach 11 01 35.33661 Bielefeld Germany 2nd Edition 2001. [160 pages]

14 Sanford J C. Genetic Entropy. FMS Publications (FMS Foundation) USA, Fourth Edition 2014. ISBN 978-0-9816316-0-8 [271 pages]

15 Wieland Carl. One Human Family. The Bible, Science, Race & Culture. Creation Book Publishers, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2011 www.onehumanfamily.us [378 pages]

16 Andrews Edgar. Who Made GOD? Searching for a Theory of Everything. EP Books, Pistyll Hall, Pistyll, Holywell, CH8 7SH www.epbooks.org 2009 (324 pp).

17 Rendle Short John. Green Eye of the storm. Controversy between Science and Christianity in the lives of Arthur Rendle-Short (1880-1953); Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888); George John Romanes (1848-1894). The Banner of Truth Trust, Edinburgh/Pennsylvania 1998. ISBN 0 85151 7277 [294 pages]

18 Hoyle Fred. The Intelligent Universe. Michael Joseph, London, 1985, page 25 “Why has the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection managed for upwards of a century, to fasten itself like a superstition on so-called enlightened opinion? Why is the story still defended so vigorously?” [This from a Cambridge University Professor, & a Fellow of UK’s prestigious Royal Society FRS]

19 Sarfati Jonathan. By Design – Evidence for Nature’s Intelligent Designer – The God of the Bible. Creation Book Publishers 2008 Atlanta Georgia, USA www.creationbookpublishers.com [260 pages]

20 Konotey-Ahulu FID. The God Delusion title devalues sensible discourse. BMJ Rapid Response www.bmj.com/content/335/7629/1099.1/rr-0 October 19 2016.

21 Blanchard John. Does GOD believe in Atheists? Evangelical Press 2001, USA P O Box 84, Auburn, MA 01501, USA ISBN 0 85234 460 0 [656 pages]

22 Blanchard John. Is GOD past His Sell-By Date? Evangelical Press 2007. P O Box 825, Webster, NY 14580 & Faverdale North Industrial Estate, Darlington, DL3 0PH, England. [268 pages]

23 Berlinski David. The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and Its Scientific Pretensions. Basic Books (Perseus Books Group) 2009; 387 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016-8810. ISBN: 978-0-465-01937-3

24 Packer JI. KNOWING GOD. Hodder and Stoughton. London 1973 [256 pp].

25 Has Science Buried God? Dr. Richard Dawkins vs. Dr. John Lennox …
983thesnake.com/has-science-buried-god-dr-richard-dawkins-vs-dr-john-lennox-the-…18 Nov 2015 – In this fascinating debate, Dr. Richard Dawkins and Dr. John Lennox discuss the question of whether science has buried God.

26 The God Delusion Debate: Richard Dawkins and John Lennox …
www.trentarwine.com › Atheism › Debates19 Jan 2017 – In Birmingham, Alabama, Professor Richard Dawkins and his Oxford University colleague, Professor John Lennox, engaged in a lively debate over what is arguably the most critical question of our time: the existence of God. The debate centred on Dawkins’ views as expressed in his “The God Delusion”.

27 McGrath Alister with McGrath JC. The Dawkins Delusion? Atheist Fundamentalism and the denial of the divine. SPCK, 36 Causton Street, London SW1P 4ST. 2007 ISBN 978-0-281-05927-0.

28 Konotey-Ahulu FID. The supra-scientific in clinical medicine: a challenge to Professor Know-All. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7327.1452 Brit Med J 2001; 323(7327): 1452-1453 (22-29 Dec) http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/323/7327/1452.pdf

29 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Case of lightning burns. BMJ 1963; 1: 1547. June 8. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5344.1547 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/1/5344/1547.apdf

30 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Superstition and phenomena in Africa. Personal View. BMJ 1969; 2:48 http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/3/5664/235.pdf April 15 doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5648.48

31 Holy Bible: Exodus chapter 3 verses 1-10. [Moses commissioned to go and lead Israelites out of Egypt].

32 Holy Bible: The Passover. Exodus chapter 12 verses 1 to 51. [Verse 51 “And it came to pass, …, that The LORD brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their armies” [A supra-scientific historical event]

33 LORD JESUS CHRIST. “Most assuredly, I say unto you, before Abraham was I AM”. St John chapter 8 verse 58.

34 Konotey-Ahulu FID. MILLENNIUM Hymn – TIME WAS CREATED (Verse 3 of the 7 verses emphasises 40 times The LORD JESUS said in St John’s Gospel He was sent into the world and why – http://bit.ly/cRrZ0s (0 is zero, not o) 2000
Video with music http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hconD91uNs

35 Murray Iain. Life of Martyn Lloyd-Jones 1899-1980. Banner of Truth Trust, Edinburgh [See Reference 24 of http://bit.ly/2igdDg2 for more details on him]

36 Medawar Peter. The Limits of Science. Oxford University Press. 1985.

37 Konotey-Ahulu FID. History versus Limits of Science: Is Solomonic Genius a Y Chromosome Phenomenon? J Genet Disorders Genetic Reports 2014; 3: 2 http://bit.ly/1wyq5H5

38 Konotey-Ahulu FID. “Private Thoughts: There is no evidence that I was born on a Saturday. Postgraduate Medical Journal of Ghana 1: 32-33” [which often proved the superiority of history over science in arriving at truth] 2012.

39 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Evidence in a post-truth world: Scientists’ Misinformation and Disinformation http://bit.ly/2igdDg2 Response to Dr Margaret McCartney’s “seams of multiple misinformation” pervading the scientific world – “Evidence in a post-truth world”. BMJ 2016; 355: 16363, November 28, 2016.

40 LORD JESUS CHRIST. To the Samaritan woman at the well: “GOD is a Spirit; and they that worship Him, must worship Him in spirit and in truth”. St John’s Gospel chapter 4 verse 24.

41 Lloyd-Jones DM. Spiritual Depression: Its Causes and Cure (Amazon’s Book Store www.amazon.co.uk>Spiritual-De ISBN 9780802813879 [One of top 100 Millennium Books]

42 Konotey-Ahulu FID. The spiritual and the psychological in Clinical Medicine. (Personal View) BMJ 1977; 1: 1595 www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/1/6076/1595.pdf doi:10,1136/6076/1595 June 15 “There is a vast area of man’s experience called the spiritual realm which neither Freudian psychoanalysis nor the scientific method can fathom…Approaches to scientific truth and spiritual truth are different. One scientist will read Dr Lloyd-Jones’ ‘Spiritual Depression: Its Causes and Cure’ (Reference 41 above) with much profit while another, with the same qualifications, will find it unintelligible”

43 Lloyd-Jones DM. Conversions Psychological and Spiritual. (Critique of Dr William Sargant’s “Battle for the Mind”) https://www.amazon.co.uk>uk 9780851100098 December 1 1959.

44 LORD JESUS CHRIST. For I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. St Matthew’s Gospel chapter 9 verse 13. [Reading of which at about 8 pm 24th October 1952 alone in my university rooms in Legon, Ghana, seemed to switch on spiritual eyes that changed me for good]

45 Barker Peter, Boadi-Siaw Samuel. Changed by the WORD – The Story of Scripture Union in Ghana. Scripture Union Ghana, P O Box AN 7388, Accra-North, Ghana. ISBN 9964-87-800-1 “Felix will never be the same again” – p. 18.

46 Metaxas Eric. BONHOEFFER – Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy. Thomas Nelson USA, August 2011 (626 pages).

47 Metaxas Eric. AMAZING GRACE. Biography of William Wilberforce. Authentic Media, USA, October 2013 (344 pages).

48 Metaxas Eric. MARTIN LUTHER: The Man Who Rediscovered GOD and Changed the World. Viking Press, USA, October 2017 (416 pages).

Competing interests: Competing Interest: Believer in The Lord Jesus Christ [Nuntsɔ Yesu Kristo]

Facebook Enquirer November 2017

Facebook enquiries

Look at www.sicklecell.md for correct terms.

What do you mean by sicklecell?
Sickle Cell Trait (Normal gene + Abnormal gene)? Or do you mean sickle cell disease (Abnormal gene + Abnormal gene)?
To simplify things, I call Normal gene NORM and Abnormal gene ACHE because it takes 2 Abnormal genes (ACHEACHE) to make someone ache with the pain of sickle cell crisis. So, sickle cell trait is NORMACHE.

On my www.sicklecell.md Home Page you will see the kanad I invented to explain what happened when my Trait father NORMACHE married my Trait mother NORMACHE. They had 11 children of whom 3 had ACHEACHE, suffering sickle cell disease. Four of us were NORMACHE like our parents (no problems) and 4 also had no problems with NORMNORM.

It is important that readers of this Facebook each find out what Haemoglobin genes have been inherited from their parents. If, like my 3 siblings, any has inherited abnormal (ACHE) haemoglobin gene from each parent then there is no NORM gene to protect from body ache under certain circumstances. I never advise a person with ACHE Haemoglobin gene not to marry someone else, remembering that my parents would have been advised not to marry as some American States are keen to legislate.

Study the kanad video, and come to your own decision. People with sickle cell disease (ACHEACHE) have inherited some brilliant genes from their parents, like beauty, elegance, brains, and become ACHIEVERS in life as we have seen in Ghana. Visit my website, and take time with my Genetic Counselling and Voluntary Family Size Limitation (GCVFSL) http://bit.ly/1w3BuvM
Please get back to me if you can’t access it.

Finally, Sickle (S) is not the only aching gene we can be born with. The second commonest abnormal Haemoglobin aching gene is “C”. Test for “S” alone (Sickle Cell Test) is not enough. I always test for other genes, not just for Sickle Cell Trait. You can be Sickle Test Negative (that is No “S”) and yet be “C” Positive, enabling you and your Sickle-Positive-“S” spouse to have a child who has two aching genes “S” + “C” to produce Hereditary Rheumatism (Sickle Cell Disease), never ever to be called “SC Trait”, but only to be known as “SC Disease”. Sickle Cell Trait is “AS”, never “SC”.

I was born surrounded by both so I know the difference. Note that Sickle Cell Disease ‘SS’ is the only phenotype known as Sickle Cell Anaemia. These terms which are not “Konotey-Ahulu terms”; but from WHO which does not recognise the term “Sickle Cell Anaemia Disease”. If you have ‘S’ from both parents you have “Sickle Cell Anaemia” (SS). If you prefer to say you have “Sickle Cell Disease” then you need to add the phenotype and say “I have Sickle Cell Disease (SS)”. If a lady has Sickle Cell Disease (SC) and develops severe anaemia from heavy periods doctors are not entitled to say she has Sickle Cell Anaemia. She is still “SC” and not “SS”. She has Sickle Cell Disease (SC) with Anaemia, but not “Sickle Cell Anaemia Disease”. [Please read this again!].

Be the one to teach your doctors if they are confused about these terms. I once mentioned how I referred a lady to have her gall stones removed by a world class Surgeon to whom I wrote this: “Please help this Sickle Cell Anaemia (SS) lady”. Less than one hour later in the same hospital he said he called and said to me: “Thank you Felix for sending me that delightful Sickle Cell Trait lady”. So even world-class Specialists don’t know WHO definitions of who has Trait (1 Normal Haemoglobin gene) and who has Disease (No Normal Haemoglobin gene).

TERMS EXPLAINED:

Sickle Cell Trait (1 Normal Gene A+1 Abnormal Gene ‘S’) I call NORMACHE which never gives Hereditary Aches. For Sickle Cell Disease (1 Abnormal Gene ‘S’+any Abnormal Gene ‘S’ or ‘Other’) I prefer ACHEACHE as S+S, S+C, S+D, S+K, S+Korle Bu, S+Osu Christiansborg, S+FPersistence, S+O, S+Kwahu, are all aching Sickle Cell Diseases. It takes 2 ACHES to cause ache.

NOTE CAREFULLY: Normal Haemoglobin ‘A’+Abnormal ‘S’ is Sickle Cell Trait (AS). Normal ‘A’+ Abnormal ‘C’ is Sickling Negative Haemoglobin C Trait (AC).

Haemoglobin gene ‘A’ is NOT to be confused with BLOOD GROUP ‘A’. These 2 genes labelled “A” have nothing to do with each other. To check for Abnormal Haemoglobins ask for “Haemoglobin Type”, not Blood Group.

Sickle Cell Trait and Sickle Cell Disease

SICKLE CELL TRAIT and SICKLE CELL DISEASE

On Facebook 15th November 2017 responding to something on a site which described itself as “Sickle Cell Anemia Disease”, I wrote this:

“Please get your correct definitions of sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait from www.sicklecell.md Let no one deceive you re sickle cell trait. Study and learn”

I then got this message: “You know I have heard from people with sickle cell trait get pain once a year or something it’s not serious but I hear they still can have symptoms I mean it is blood line you know”.

Visiting www.sicklecell.md proved to some doctors that sickle cell disease has often been wrongly called sickle cell trait, and vice versa, with serious consequences.

“Pain once a year” is no proof of sickle cell trait. Millions of people around the world who do not have sickle cell trait have pains more than once a week!

Doctors writing SCT for sickle cell trait imply that “SC” is a Trait, which is wrong because “SC” is 2 Abnormal Haemoglobins – a disease phenotype. The Trait must have NORMAL Haemoglobin A plus S, and the “A” fraction must always be greater than the “S”. Sickle Cell Trait is written “AS Trait”, not SCT. If Electrophoresis shows “AS” (1 Normal gene A greater than S) and the person has symptoms like sickle cell disease then the person may well have Sickle Cell Quebec-Chori disease, with Hb Chori behaving like “A”. See [Konotey-Ahulu FID. Lancet February 29, 1992, page 555 http://bit.ly/2d18oOL

Beware of symptomatic sickle cell traits. Lancet, February 29, 1992, page 555.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PII0140-6736(92)90377-F/fulltext]

FOUR THINGS YOU MUST READ ON SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENT

FOUR THINGS YOU MUST READ ON SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENT

This information for all ages has helped many families.

  1. Konotey-Ahulu FID. The inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease. New African January 2000, pp 40-43
    http://www.konotey-ahulu.com/pdfs/sicklecell_jan2001.pdf
  2. Konotey-Ahulu FID. The Person with Sickle Cell Disease. New African March 2001, pp 38-39.
    http://www.konotey-ahulu.com/pdfs/sicklecell_mar2001.pdf
  3. Konotey-Ahulu FID. The Teenager with Sickle Cell Disease. New African. June 2001, pp 40-42
    http://www.konotey-ahulu.com/pdfs/sicklecell_jun2001.pdf
  4. Konotey-Ahulu FID. The Adult with Sickle Cell Disease. New African Sep. 2001, pp 40-43.
    http://www.konotey-ahulu.com/pdfs/sicklecell_sep2001.pdf
    Also http://www.questia.com

Remember that these sickle cell disease children, teenagers, and adults have inherited from their parents other genes to make them brilliant, beautiful, and much else. They must be looked after properly to make them use their brilliant genes to become ACHIEVERS in life.

See www.sicklecell.md and learn.

Good evening Prof: Should I marry this person?

Question: Good Evening Prof, A lady friend of mine is with SC since birth and she loves this guy who is AS. Should she go on with the marriage even though there is a 50% chance of having sickly children?

Kanad
ANSWER:
Dear C.M., It is not my normal habit to advise who should marry whom, but as you can see from the kanad pictured above with male phenotypes on one side, and female on the other your friend is “SC” (abnormal Haemoglobin ACHE ‘S’ gene from one of her parents, and abnormal Haemoglobin ACHE ‘C’ gene from the other parent, making her ache with sickle cell crisis at certain times.

As you observed, when the dice ACHEACHE on one side is thrown against the dice NORMACHE on the other the probability for each throw of the dice is 1 in 2 (50%) for ACHEACHE to show because the man will show NORM or ACHE with each throw. The sequence is unpredictable because the man may show NORM (‘A’) several times or ACHE (‘S’) several times. Moreover, depending on whether the lady’s ACHE is an egg carrying ACHE ‘S’ or egg with ACHE ‘C’ the children of this union may be ‘AC’ NORMACHE, (‘A’ from the man, ‘C’ from the lady, ‘AS’ NORMACHE like your lady friend’s man, ‘SS’ ACHEACHE, or ‘SC’ ACHEACHE like your lady friend. Please read this statement again until you can explain it to your lady friend. Now, my book “The Sickle Cell Disease Patient” describes exactly such a situation where a Staff Nurse “SC” asked me whether she should go ahead and marry her lover “AS”. After explaining to her just as I have done here, she said to me: “Doctor, I am a nurse and I can care for him when he is unwell. Moreover you have told your patients how to keep out of sickle cell crisis so even if we have “SS” or “SC” children we can cope.” Remember that my kanad shown above (Konotey-Ahulu Norm Ache Dice) has two main functions:

They show you (i) What Could Happen ie PROBABILITY, and what is more important (ii) PREDICTABILITY ie What Will Happen.

If someone tells me: “Doc, I have suffered too much with this hereditary ailment. I do not want any child of mine to suffer like I am doing. Show me the phenotype that I can marry so that even though I have ACHEACHE my children will never have ACHEACHE”. Well, simple: Pick the dice marked NORMNORM and it is impossible to have an ACHEACHE child. But remember that some ACHEACHE people are brighter, more beautiful, and more focussed than their siblings who do not ache. The first option is Genetic Gambling. The second option is Predicting Genetic Certainty.

But here is a beautiful true story: One of my brilliant ACHEACHE “SS” ACHIEVERS fell in love with a NORMACHE “AS” (Sickle Cell Trait) lady. They decided to go ahead and get married hoping that the first child will be from the NORM egg of the lady, and his ACHE sperm, then they will stop, and adopt their second child. Well Mr H.S. engaged this lady, married her, and they had a son, lovely son with all the elegance of the father and the combined genius of both of them, NORMACHE “AS” Sickle Cell Trait. The couple went on to adopt a daughter.

So my duty is to show the difference between Genetic Gambling (Probability), and Genetic Prediction with 100 per cent certainty. If ACHEACHE marries ACHEACHE all the children will be ACHEACHE as shown on the cover of my blue book:

See my website www.sicklecell.md Those who choose Genetic Gambling because they are madly in love should know what could happen. They will limit their family size as Mr H. S. and his wife have done.

Sickle Cell Trait Confusion: Is It Deliberate? Or Is This Ignorance?

Sickle Cell Trait Confusion: Is It Deliberate? Or Is This Ignorance?

I speak with authority as one who was born into a Sickle Cell Disease home within a Sickle Cell Trait country. One in every 5 of us in southern Ghana including nurses, doctors, business men and women, judges, liars, thieves, university professors, Parliamentarians, athletes, crooks, footballers, Olympic Medallists, and boxers has the Sickle Cell Trait.

In Northern Nigeria with a population of 90 million there are 30 Million Sickle Cell Traits. One in every three babies born there in Kano, Sokoto, Maedeguru is Sickle Cell Trait. And in Accra where I worked at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital every 1 in 5 babies of the 13000 consecutive deliveries we tested in 12 months had Sickle Cell Trait.

What is more, 1 in every 3 of the white people in Greece where Lake Kopais used to be is Sickle Cell Trait! And now, lo and behold, “In Fontana August is Sickle Cell Trait Prevention Month”. Are they serious in suggesting Sickle Cell Trait needs preventing? Making 1 in 5 of us Ghanaians feel guilty for being born because we are Sickle Cell Trait? Even Sickle Cell Disease Patients need not feel guilty because they often have brilliant genes that their siblings do not possess.

Seriously, believe me, there are two kinds of readers of this Facebook post:

(1) Those who want to learn from me whom Nobel Laureate Professor Linus Pauling listened to when I delivered the Martin Luther King Award Lecture in Philadelphia on the Topic “The Vital Difference Between Sickle Cell Trait and Sickle Cell Disease”, and

(2) Those who prefer what Fontana teaches on Sickle Cell Trait.

For those who have time for me, please set time aside and study the following articles very, very, very carefully:

SICKLE CELL TRAIT

  1. Blaming sudden death on Sickle Cell Trait? http://bit.ly/1Eutn19 
  2. Sickle Cell Trait Misinformation and Disinformation http://bit.ly/1CqYHib
  3. Further Communication on Sickle Cell Trait Misinformation and Disinformation and Sickle Cell Terminology: Disease  or Disorder?          http://bit.ly/1Gm4gNP 
  4. World Sickle Cell Day 19h June 2014 http://bit.ly/1FuNXPi 
  5. Beware of symptomatic sickle cell traits. Lancet, February 29, 1992, page 555. http://bit.ly/2d18oOL
    http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PII0140-6736(92)90377-F/fulltext
  6. Dangerously flawed diagnosis of sickle cell trait in compartment syndrome rhabdomyolysis http://bit.ly/2d4t9Zd
    http://www.sicklecell.md/blog/index.php/2016/09/dangerously-flawed-diagnosis-of-sickle-cell-trait-in-compartment-syndrome-rhabdomyolysis-article/
  7. Sickle Cell Trait: As with statins when leading editors disagree please give principles same weight as details/
    http://www.sicklecell.md/blog/index.php/2016/09/statins-when-leading-editors-disagree-please-give-principles-same-weight-as-details/
    http://bit.ly/2dy5fUJ
  8.  http://bit.ly/2bRQ7B1    Tafracher BMJ 8th June 1975

This Ghanaian word Tafracher allows me to call a spade a spade, as it were. [It allows me to say articles describing Sickle Cell Trait as Sickle Cell Disease are (Tafracher) rubbish for how can a Sickle Cell Trait man run at 7000 ft at Olympic Games and beat the whole world with a disease?] 

If you absorb all this information you can help your colleagues and even your doctors in saying exactly what Sickle Cell Trait is, and what it is not.

Felix Konotey-Ahulu FGA MD(Lond) FRCP(Lond) FRCP(Glasg) DTMH FGCP FWACP FTWAS Kwegyir Aggrey Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics, University Cape Coast Ghana, & Former Consultant Physician Genetic Counsellor Sickle Cell & Other Haemoglobinopathies, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra Ghana, and 9 Harley Street London W1G 9AL [ www.sicklecell.md ] Twitter Felix@profkonoteyahul

Further BMJ Links especially for doctors, nurses & science graduates.

  1. Overseas Med. Graduates bmj.com/content/356/bmj.j574/rr-0
  2. Routine Tests not to be abandoned bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j2091/rr-15
  3. BMA AGM 2017 On Abortion bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j3116/rr

Finally, Sickle (S) is not the only aching gene we can be born with. The second commonest abnormal Haemoglobin aching gene is “C”. Test for “S” alone (Sickle Cell Test) is not enough. I always test for other genes, not just for Sickle Cell Trait. You can be Sickle Test Negative (that is No “S”) and yet be “C” Positive, enabling you and your Sickle-Positive-”S” spouse to have a child who has two aching genes “S” + “C” to produce Hereditary Rheumatism (Sickle Cell Disease), never ever to be called “SC Trait”, but only to be known as “SC Disease”. Sickle Cell Trait is “AS”, never “SC”. I was born surrounded by both. I know the difference.

World Sicklecell Disease Patient Week – Videos

World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week

After a successful week of videos in July I have put them all together in one post for you to view.

Introduction
There is such an event called “World Sickle Cell Day” which falls in mid-June every year.

For me who had two brothers and one sister (Victor Agbetey, Jerry Tei and Sussie Konotey-Ahulu) with hereditary cold-season rheumatism or hemikom as this has always been known in my Krobo Tribe in Ghana as the name for Sickle Cell Disease – one day in a year is not enough attention given to a very important problem.

Day 1
Professor Konotey-Ahulu explains the reasons behind the Sicklecell Disease Patient Week and a bit about his history.

Day 2
Professor Konotey-Ahulu interviews an achiever of over 50 years old.

Day 3
Professor Konotey-Ahulu talks about the various African tribes which have various names for the Sicklecell disease. He also explains the difference between trait and the disease.

Day 4
Professor Konotey-Ahulu gives a round up of the videos published and a bit more history on what he found during his career.

Day 5
Professor Konotey-Ahulu continues to talk to an achiever on how he stopped the disease from taking over his life and reduced crises periods.

Day 6
Professor Konotey-Ahulu explains his dice (KANAD) and how it can help explain how people get the disease.

Day 7
An achiever Akosua M Dankwa talks about the Sicklecell Disease and how it has affected her life.

Books
The Sickle Disease Patient book is now on sale at a 50% discount. The book can now be purchased here http://blog.sicklecell.md/shop/ FREE KANAD dice with each purchase whilst stock lasts.

Links
Facebook Event – https://www.facebook.com/events/305588243201034
Books – http://blog.sicklecell.md/shop/

World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week – 20% off our books

World Sickle Cell Patient week

Today is the start of World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week and we are offering 20% off our books till 31st August 2017.

To view the event on Facebook look out for my videos during the week starting today. https://www.facebook.com/events/305588243201034 

World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week

Use the following code at the checkout WSCDPW2017 to get you 20% discount  plus an added bonus a special free gift of a pack of kanad (Konotey-Ahulu Norm Ache Dice) when you purchase a book from our store during the World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week.

My books are available here http://blog.sicklecell.md/shop/

kanad (Konotey-Ahulu Norm Ache Dice)
Free gift when purchasing our books till 22nd July 2017

World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week

World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week

WSCDPW [World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week]

There is such an event called “World Sickle Cell Day” which falls in mid-June every year.

For me who had two brothers and one sister (Victor Agbetey, Jerry Tei and Sussie Konotey-Ahulu) with hereditary cold-season rheumatism or hemikom as this has always been known in my Krobo Tribe in Ghana as the name for Sickle Cell Disease – one day in a year is not enough attention given to a very important problem.

Therefore, I am from July 12 2017, God willing, devoting a whole week to what I am calling WSCDPW ie World Sickle Cell Disease Person or Patient Week – the P is for Person or Patient for, as I hope to show you, some-one with sickle cell disease does not have to be going in and out of hospital regularly and frequently.

So there will be something for 12, 13 14, 16 17, 18 of July, with 15th July as a rest day. During the week matters concerning the Person with sickle cell disease will be discussed. My greatest credential is that from the day I was born several decades ago I was within my immediate family and the extended family surrounded by sickle cell disease relatives – this credential of mine is more important than the fact that as a doctor, I ran the largest Sickle Cell Disease Clinic in the world at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. And indeed more important than the fact that with Professor Linus Pauling (discoverer of the molecular pathology of sickle cell haemoglobin for which he got the Nobel Prize) on the platform I was chosen from among 24 Dr Martin Luther Jing Jr Foundation Award Winners for Sickle Cell Research world-wide, to deliver the Award Dinner Lecture in Philadelphia on Wednesday 31st May 1972, the title of my Award Lecture being “The Vital Difference Between Sickle Cell Trait and Sickle Cell Disease”. This does not compare with the fact that I knew about the sickle cell disease patient before I read Medicine.

So, the fact that I was born into a home where my sibllings, and cousins, and aunts, and uncles suffered from sickle cell disease is why I dare to introduce a WSCDPW or World Sickle Cell Disease Patient Week. My aim is not to indulge in controversy. My sole aim, and I mean this, my sole aim is to tell those like my brothers and one sister who inherited an abnormal haemoglobin from both father and mother to give them sickle cell disease – to tell them that they have inherited other genes from the same parents that can produce great achievement in their lives. I shall be greatly privileged to introduce some of these ACHIEVERS to the world, and to help those struggling at the moment with pain and other problems how to succeed. My 643-page book describes no less than 130 real patients and their problems and how they have succeeded or not succeeded in tackling them. Watch this space! My website www.sicklecell.md also has much information.

Professor Felix I D Konotey-Ahulu [whose parents were Traits for Abnormal Haemoglobin genes and whose 3 siblings had sickle cell disease].
MB BS MD(Lond) FRCP(Lond) FRCP(Glasg) DTMH (L’pool) DSc(Hon UCC) FGCP FWACP FTWAS ORDER OF THE VOLTA (OFFICER)
Kwegyir Aggrey Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics, University of Cape Coast Ghana, and Former Consultant Physician Genetic Counsellor Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Ghana and 9 Harley Street, London W1G 9AL.

https://www.facebook.com/events/305588243201034

Should we abandon routine blood tests?

Re: Should we abandon routine blood tests? No, not when hereditary erythrocytopathy poses a real problem in a so-called multi-racial population!

Should we abandon routine blood tests_fb

Should we abandon routine blood tests? No, not when hereditary erythrocytopathy poses a real problem in a so-called multi-racial population!

WEST AFRICANS NEED ERYTHROPATHIC TESTS BUT ONCE

The name “K Siau” [1] sounds Ghanaian from Kwahu Tribe, while the initial K could stand for any of the 7 Ghanaian Male Day-Names: Kwesi – Sunday to > Kwame – Saturday. [Our Kofi Annan was Friday-born]. If Siau is Ghanaian, then he may well be one of the “1 in 3 West Africans” who have inherited the abnormal haemoglobin gene ‘S’ or ‘C’, from one parent, not to mention the 1 in 4 males with Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency [2 3]. Millions of healthy West Africans in the UK have one gene for hereditary erythrocytopathy (abnormal haemoglobin S or C, plus or minus G6PD Deficiency) [4 5]. Routine blood tests performed just once can discern these [5]. UK is no longer entirely Caucasian therefore doctors need to unmask erythrocytopathy.

PROFESSOR MALCOLM MILNE AND THE CAUCASIAN’S SHOULDER

Orthopaedic Trainee Dr Alastair Faulkner [6] may have read my account [7] of a postgraduate ward round many years ago. After being asked to examine a white patient I gave my Clinical Impression: “This jaundiced Greek patient with pale nails, scars on one shoulder and right hypochondrium, and with limited straight leg elevation of right leg has avascular necrosis of the shoulder, avascular necrosis of one femoral head, and has had gall stones removed because of chronic haemolysis from Sickle Cell beta-Thalassaemia” [7] Duly impressed, Professor Milne produced laboratory results confirming my diagnosis proving that NOT ONLY BLACK PEOPLE SUFFER FROM SICKLE CELL DISEASE. In Greece, around Lake Kopais, the 30% incidence of sickle cell trait was higher than anywhere in Ghana [8-10]. Any new patient I ever had – Black, White, Hebrew, Asian or Indian must routinely have Haemoglobin Electrophoresis and G6PD test done and be given a Certificate of the findings.

PROBLEM WITH NHS TESTS

Dr Sam Lewis [11] mentions the “nit-picking rejection of lab requests” in the NHS. When Clinicians request certain tests, NHS Pathologists often decide which to accept and reject. While Locum Consultant Physician in a London Hospital I requested Haemoglobin Electrophoresis on a woman, only for the Pathologist to send a report: “Sickling Test Negative”. I protested I never asked for a Sickling Test; could I have Haemoglobin Electrophoresis, please? The Haematologist asked why if sickling test was Negative I wanted Haemoglobin Electrophoresis? I then told him I had in Ghana the largest collection of Homozygous Haemoglobin C Disease patients (CC) in the world (all sickling negative) and that it was a common cause of miscarriage in pregnant women [12] The Pathologist still refused to do the test so I sent the lady to a Private Lab where Haemoglobin CC Phenotype was confirmed. As husband was Sickle Cell Trait (AS) I counselled them, advising that they should expect to have Sickle Cell Disease (SC) and Haemoglobin C Trait (AC) offspring. [13]

DO ROUTINE TEST FOR GLUCOSE 6 PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY

Do not wait till patients complain of “passing urine like coca cola”. Always testing new patients for Abnormal Haemoglobins and G6PD Deficiency was how we discovered that G6PD Deficiency was not just a haemolysis problem, but could aggravate the course of typhoid fever, renal failure, muscle pain, duration of coma from any cause, and the prognosis of sickle cell disease. [2 3 14 -20]. That was how we discovered the first ever African with zero G6PD enzyme in his red cells – a phenomenon thought only to exist in Mediterranean Caucasians. [21 22]. Ringelhann [23], Beutler [24], James Bowman and Robert Murray [25] confirmed high levels of G6PD Deficiency in Blacks on both sides of The Atlantic. Luzzatto, examining 100 “SS” males found 16% to be G6PD Deficient [26]. As salmonellosis is common in sickle cell disease [27 28], and Chloramphenicol is contraindicated in G6PD Deficiency, this test requires doing for all sickle cell disease patients [19].

QUANTIFICATION TESTS BETTER THAN QUALITATIVE BUT NOT CHEAP

Relying only on G6PD Colour Tests would have missed our zero-enzyme patients. Quantification is vital for both Abnormal Haemoglobin and G6PD enzyme. That was how we knew that Sickle Cell Traits have 3 modes of Haemoglobin S (20-25%, 30-35%, 36-39.5%) [29] which fact enables us to distinguish the true Sickle Cell Trait (“AS” with S less than 40%) from Sickle Cell beta-plus Thalassaemia Disease (2 abnormal genes) with Sickle gene product way above 50% [28 29 30].
WHO and International Atomic Energy Agency grants funded our tests. [5 28].

SHOULD ANYONE BE REFUSED THESE ONCE ONLY ROUTINE TESTS?

I have described a white Englishman (Hb D Trait) married to a Ghanaian lady (Hb S Trait) and their 2 sickle cell disease daughters (Ref 28, Illustrative Case History 133). If NHS budget is unable to sustain such a routine test burden shall we not ask enquirers to go Private for their health’s sake? Dr K Siau believes while we needed to “avoid unnecessary repetition of blood tests” [1] some routine tests “should be considered part of holistic Medicine …” [1]. Three out of every 100 West Africans in the UK have inherited TWO ABNORMAL HAEMOGLOBIN genes causing hereditary disease capable of showing up in any Clinical Discipline [See the 133 Illustrated Case Histories in Reference 28] not to mention the non-haematological complications of G6PD Deficiency [2 3 20 28 29]. I once expressed disappointment when a seven-part series on genetic epidemiology by “three white professors began in The Lancet on September 10, 2005” [30] only for the series to end without once mentioning the genetic burden of west Africans in the UK. [29]. Will Dr K Siau now add our West African statistics to those of the “4000 Danish patients” he produced [1]? As I said in 1982, we needed to “unearth the hundreds of cases of SC sickle cell disease, some of whom are bread winners, before they are brought in dying or dead in their first crisis for 10 years” [31]

Conflict of Interest: My Parents Heterozygote for Abnormal Hbns (“AC” & “AS”) had 11 children: 3 Sickle Cell Disease “SC”, 2 Heterozygotes “AC”, 2 Heterozygotes “AS”, 4 Homozygotes “AA” [32].

felix@konotey-ahulu.com Twitter@profkonoteyahul

F I D Konotey-Ahulu MD(Lond) FRCP(Lond) FRCP(G) DTMH(L’pool) FGCP FWACP FTWAS
Kwegyir Aggrey Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Former Consultant Physician/Genetic Counsellor in Sickle & Other Haemoglobinopathies, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana and at 9 Harley Street, London WIG 1AA. [ www.sicklecell.md ]

References

1 Siau K. Should we abandon routine blood tests? BMJ Rapid Response 8 May 2017. http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j2091/rr-6

2 Owusu SK. Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the causation of disease in Ghana. Ghana Med J 1974; 13: 168-170.

3 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Disease Causation in Ghana. (Editorial) Ghana Medical Journal 1974; 13: 155-158.

4 Ringelhann B, Dodu SRA, Konotey-Ahulu FID. Lehmann H. A survey for haemoglobin variants, thalassaemia, and Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Ghana. Ghana Med J 1968; 17: 120-124.

5 Ringelhann B, Konotey-Ahulu FID. Hemoglobinopathies and thalassaemias in Mediterranean areas and in West Africa: Historical and other perspectives 1910 to 1997 – A Century Review. Atti dell’Accademia dell Science di Ferrara (Milan) 1998;74: 267-307

6. Faulkner Alastair, Reidy Mike, McGowan James. Should we abandon routine blood tests? BMJ 2017; 357: j2091 www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j2091?sso=

7 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Hip pain and radiographic signs of osteoarthritis: Sickle cell and other haemoglobinopathy differential diagnosis. BMJ Rapid Response 8 January 2016 http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h5983/rr-2

8 Choremis G, Sickle cell anaemia in Greece. Lancet 1951; 1: 1147.

9 Choremis G. Sickle cell trait and blood groups in Greece. Lancet 1953; 2: 901-911.

10 Delyannis GA, Tavlarakis N. Sickling phenomenon in Northern Greece. BMJ 1955; 2: 299-301.

11 Lewis Sam. Should we abandon routine blood tests? BMJ Rapid Response May 4 2017 www.bmj.com/content/bmj.j2091/rapidresponses

12 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Homozygous Haemoglobin C Disease. In FID Konotey-Ahulu. The spectrum of phenotypic expression of clinical haemoglobinopathy in West Africa. New Istanbul Contribution to Clinical Science 1978 Dec; 12(3-4): 246-257.

13 Konotey-Ahulu FID. SICKLE CELL DISEASE: The Case for Family Planning. Astab Books Ltd., Accra Ghana 1973.

14 Owusu SK. Clinical manifestations of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Ghana. Ghana Medical J 1978; 17: 235-239.

15 Owusu SK, Foli AK, Konotey-Ahulu FID, Janosi M. Frequency of Glucose 6 Phosphate Deficiency in typhoid fever in Ghana. Lancet 1972; 1: 320.

16 Adu D, Anim-Addo Y, Foli AK, Yeboah ED, Quartey JKM. Acute renal failure and typhoid fever. Ghana Medical Journal 1975; 14: 172-174.

17 Owusu SK, Addy JH, Foli AK, Janosi Marianne, Konotey-Ahulu FID, Larbi EB. Acute reversible renal failure associated with glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet 1972; 1: 1255-1257.

18 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell anaemia. New Eng J Med 1972; 287: 887-888.

19 Acquaye CTA, Gbedemah KA, Konotey-Ahulu FID. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency incidence in sickle cell disease in Accra. Ghana Med J 1977; 16: 4-7.

20 Konotey-Ahulu FID. G6PD Deficiency in Ghanaians: How to recognize it. http://blog.konotey-ahulu.com/blog/_archives/2008/1/16/3458557.htmlJan. 16 2008.

21 Owusu SK. Absence of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in red cells of an African. BMJ 1972; 4: 25-26

22 Owusu SK, Opare-Mante A. Electrophoretic characterization of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal 1972; 11: 304

23 Ringelhann Bela. A simple laboratory procedure for the recognition of the A (African Type) G6PD Deficiency in acute haemolytic crisis. Clin. Chim. Acta 1972; 36: 272-274.

24 Beutler E. Genetic Disorders of Red Cell Metabolism. Medical Clinics of North America 1969; 53: 813-826.

25 Bowman James E, Murray Robert F. Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin. The Johns Hopkins University Press Ltd, London 1990, pp 171-190.

26 Luzzatto Lucius. G6PD Deficiency frequency and sickle cell association on the African continent. INSERM 1975; 44: 229.

27 Konotey-Ahulu FID, Kuma Eunice. Skeletal crumbling in sickle cell anaemia complicated by Salmonella Typhi infection. British J Clin Practice1965; 575-578.

28 Konotey-Ahulu FID. The Sickle Cell Disease Patient. Natural History from a clinico-epidemiological study of the first 1550 patients of Korle Bu Hospital Sickle Cell Clinic. T-A’D Company Watford 1996 [First Published 1991 & 1992 The Macmillan Press Ltd., London and Basingstoke] – 643 pages. [This book has 133 Illustrated Case Histories not found elsewhere]

29 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Alpha-Thalassaemia nomenclature and abnormal haemoglobins. Lancet 1984; 1: 1024-1025.

30 Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB. The Thalassaemia Syndromes 1981. Third Edition, Blackwell Scientific. Oxford.

31 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Survey of sickle cell disease in England and Wales. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1495623/pdf/bmjcred00588-00…
BMJ 1982; 284: 111 (January 9)

32 Konotey-Ahulu FID. Sickle Cell Disease in Successive Ghanaian Generations for Three Centuries (Manya Krobo Tribe) Chapter 2 Reference 28 pp 6-20, and FID Konotey-Ahulu in The Human Genome Diversity Project: Cogitations of An African Native. Politics and The Life Sciences (PLS) 1999; Vol 18: No 2, pp 317-322 [Invited Commentary on Professor David Resnik’s article: The Human Genome Diversity Project: Ethical Problems and Solutions]

Competing interests: My Parents Heterozygote for Abnormal Hbns (“AC” & “AS”) had 11 children: 3 Sickle Cell Disease “SC”, 2 Heterozygotes “AC”, 2 Heterozygotes “AS”, 4 Homozygotes “AA” [32].